In July 2010, a Memorandum of Understanding was signed between Pakistan and Afghanistan for the Afghan Transit Trade Agreement (APTTA), which was respected by US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton. The two states have also signed a moU for the construction of rail tracks in Afghanistan to contact Pakistan Railways (PR) , which has been under development since at least 2005.  In October 2010, the pioneering APTTA agreement was signed by Pakistani Trade Minister Makhdoom Amin Fahim and Anwar ul-Haq Ahady, the Afghan Ministry of Commerce. Richard Holbrooke, U.S. Special Representative for Afghanistan and Pakistan, as well as a number of foreign ambassadors, Afghan parliamentarians and senior officials attended the ceremony.  “The problems and challenges have always been significant financial losses to the private sector; So there is an urgent need to address these challenges through diplomatic channels,” said Sayed Zaman Hashemi, an economic analyst. Since the new agreement, there have been times when borders between two countries are sometimes closed to trade due to uprisings, as terrorism is one of the main concerns and intelligence services and diplomatic relations between the two countries are still at a standstill. Sources said that Pakistan, in requesting the renewal of the agreement, was working to ensure the transit of its products to Central Asia through the soil of Afghanistan without any conditions. At the time of the 2015 study, there was tremendous pressure on the RBF to “facilitate” the transit rules agreed under the APTTA. FBR has been accused of transit transport and thus of Pakistan`s “influence” on the Afghan government and people. The 2015 PBC study showed that Pakistan remains the main transit route for Afghan imports – which account for 58% of Afghan trade – and that the decline in trade is rather due to the decline in Afghan imports in 2014.
Afghanistan and Pakistan signed a new Afghanistan-Pakistan Transit Trade Agreement (APTTA) in 2010, covering Afghanistan`s foreign trade through Pakistan. APTTA calls for various measures to combat the smuggling of duty-free goods to Pakistan and Afghanistan by imposing the following measures: tracking equipment, bank guarantees and special licences for tankers for transit trucks, vehicle tracking systems and container security depots.  Another interesting result of this study is the uncovered transit trade, which reached $1.0 billion in 2014 in 2014 – the gap between the figures reported by Pakistani customs as transit traffic for Afghanistan and the figure reported by Afghan customs that entered Afghanistan via Pakistan.